Tennessee became the 16th state, with borders that encroached on Chickasaw lands guaranteed in the Hopewell Treaty. Even as Chickasaws continued to defend the U.S. in the War of 1812 and Creek Wars, demonstrating loyalty and skills as warriors, land cessions and actions towards Mississippi statehood intensified.

The death of Washington and the impact of Jefferson's civilization program set the stage for the passage of the Indian Removal Act under Andrew Jackson. Chickasaws' lives in their ancestral homelands drew to a sorrowful close.

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Mississippi Territory

Designated as the land above the 31st parallel and the Mississippi River
While the Treaty of San Lorenzo was signed in 1795, the Spanish didn't relinquish control of this land until March 1798.

A Time of Pivotal Change

The deaths of two great leaders marked a turning point in Chickasaw and United States relations
George Washington died on December 14, 1799. There is not an exact date for Piominko's death.

Thomas Jefferson's Impact

A new desire to bind the Chickasaws and other Native Americans to the U.S. through treaties and commerce
Jefferson's Indian policy reflected his new desire to bind the Chickasaws and other Native Americans to the U.S. through treaties and commerce.

Treaty of Chickasaw Bluffs

Allowed the federal government to build a wagon road through Chickasaw and Natchez lands in Tennessee
In 1801, the Chickasaw signed a treaty allowing the U.S. to build a wagon road through their land.

First Chickasaw Land Cession – Treaty of the Chickasaw Nation

A deal struck with the federal government in order to pay $20,000 in Chickasaw debt
Chickasaws participated in the U.S. attempt to "civilize" them in the hope that they could retain their ancestral land base.

The War of 1812

The threat of British invasion along the Gulf Coast prompted Chickasaw involvement
The Battle of New Orleans, conducted on January 8, 1815, was the last major battle of the War of 1812.

The Creek War

Began as a civil war within the Creek Nation but later included the U.S. and Chickasaws
The war began as a civil war within the Creek Nation over American encroachment.

Setting the Stage for Removal

President Andrew Jackson considers options for a new Native American policy
By 1815, as Americans continued intruding onto tribal lands, the U.S. needed more land for its citizens.

Treaty of the Chickasaw Council House

The tribe cedes close to six million acres in what is now Tennessee and Alabama
General Jackson, riding a crest of popularity, led the U.S. negotiations at Chickasaw Leader George Colbert’s home.

Treaty of Old Town: Jackson's Purchase

The Chickasaws cede land in western Tennessee and Kentucky for land to the west
The U.S. agreed to pay the Chickasaws $20,000 per year for 15 years and the U.S. paid off certain debts in return for Chickasaw claims to land.

Offers Rejected

Levi Colbert flatly turns down Commissioner William Clark
On October 17, 1826, a Council was held between Commissioners William Clark and two others and Chickasaw representatives.

The Indian Removal Act

With a formalized act and funding, the U.S. government could begin relocating the Five Civilized Tribes
This act authorized Jackson to negotiate with Southeastern Indian tribes for their land in return for territory west of the Mississippi River.

Treaty with the Chickasaw, 1830, Unratified (also known as Treaty of Franklin)

Not ratified by the U.S. Senate and would eventually become void
The Chickasaw were forced to cede their lands in return for land west of the Mississippi River.

Treaty with the Chickasaw, 1832 (also known as Treaty of Pontitock Creek)

Relinquished Chickasaw lands in exchange for suitable land west of the Mississippi River
The Treaty relinquished Chickasaw lands east of the Mississippi River in exchange for a promise to find suitable land west of the Mississippi River.

Trial of Tishominko

A direct consequence of non-Indian encroachment into Chickasaw territory
Massive encroachment plagued Chickasaw communities during the 1830s.

Treaty with the Chickasaw, 1834

Detailed stipulations from the 1832 Treaty of Pontotoc Creek and the land sales
A supplementary treaty was signed between the Chickasaw Nation and the United States in Washington, D.C., on May 24, 1834.

Treaty with the Choctaw and Chickasaw, 1837 (also known as Treaty of Doaksville)

A treaty with the Choctaw Nation that would lead to trying times for the Chickasaw people
A group of five Chickasaw leaders journeyed to the Choctaw Nation and persuaded the Choctaw leaders to relinquish some of their western land.