Early America

As the British gained their edge over France, colonists began pressing for independence. The Revolutionary War confounded the Chickasaws, who saw it as “brothers fighting brothers” and tried to take a neutral position. The tribe’s long allegiance to England came to an end as the Chickasaws shifted towards “Mountain Leader” Piominko’s efforts to befriend the Americans.

Piominko’s relationship with George Washington helped the tribe greatly, even as westward expansion began to erode Chickasaw borders. The transfer of Louisiana from France to Spain was a disturbing influence.

15 Items

Treaty of Paris

Formally ended the French and Indian War and recognized American independence
This treaty, signed by Great Britain, France and Spain, formally ended the Seven Years' (or French and Indian) War in North America.

Royal Proclamation of 1763

A marked change in the relationship between Native American and British settlers
At first it looked like the British were on the Chickasaws' side. The Royal Proclamation recognized the rights of Native Americans to own land.

Augusta Conference

More than 700 tribes attended to discuss the encroachment of traders and settlers onto their lands
Word of the Royal Proclamation had not yet reached the North American continent.

American Revolution

The alliance between the American colonies and France placed Chickasaw loyalty with the English
Chickasaws perceived the American Revolution as “brothers fighting brothers” and initially tried to stay out of the conflict.

Fort Jefferson

The site of the Chickasaws' bloodiest actions against Americans
The Chickasaws' bloodiest actions against the Americans occurred at Fort Jefferson.

Ratification of the Treaty of Paris

Signed by delegates from the Unites States and Great Britain, as well as France and Spain
With the ratification of the Treaty of Paris in 1784, the original 13 colonies and the original borders of the United States came into being.

Treaty of Hopewell

Set a detrimental precedent that was used against the tribe in future negotiations
Two years after Wolf’s Friend signed the Mobile Treaty aligning the Chickasaw with Spain, Piominko signed a treaty at Hopewell, South Carolina.

Tribal Sovereignty

Formally addressed in the United States Constitution
Tribal sovereignty was addressed in the U.S. Constitution, adopted in 1788.

Indian Trade and Intercourse Act

The first law to regulate trade between Native Americans and colonists
One of the initial acts passed by the first U.S. Congress was the Indian Trade and Intercourse Act of 1790.

Peace Conference in Nashville

Governor William Blount meets with Chickasaw, Cherokee, Choctaw and Muscogee (Creek) tribal leaders
William Blount called for a council meeting of leaders from the Chickasaw, Cherokee, Choctaw and Muscogee (Creek) tribes.

Battle of Fallen Timbers

Occurred near present-day Toledo, Ohio, on August 20, 1794
Chickasaws fought as allies of the United States under General “Mad” Anthony Wayne against Native Americans of the old Northwest Territory.

Piominko Meets Washington

A friendship is born between the Chickasaw leader and the first president of the United States
Washington provided Piominko with a written document confirming the boundaries of the Chickasaw Nation.

Chickasaw Bluffs

Piominko’s forces launch a surprise attack and forced the Creeks to flee
Piominko’s pro-American supporters continued to gain strength against the Spanish-Creek alliance.

Treaty of San Lorenzo

Spain cedes its claim to the land above the 31st degree latitude and west to the Mississippi River
In the Treaty of San Lorenzo, Spain ceded its claim to the land above the 31st degree latitude and west to the Mississippi River.

John Adams Elected President, Chickasaw George Colbert Emerges As Leader

A change in federal policy and a new era of challenges for the Chickasaws
John Adams didn’t continue George Washington’s policy of guaranteeing and protecting sovereign Native American territories.