Samuel Paul was born in 1848. He spoke all the languages of the Five Civilized Tribes, as well as English, Kiowa and Comanche.
Samuel Paul was described as "fearless and ruthless," which explains why he was a member of the Chickasaws' first police force, the Lighthorse Police. The members of the force were responsible for arresting all outlaws, thieves and murderers, with or without warrant; if there was resistance, they were to shoot them on the spot.
Samuel Paul then went on to be elected senator in the Chickasaw legislature. He also practiced law and owned two newspapers.
Paul was sentenced to a federal prison for the shooting of a non-Indian criminal. However, at the request of the Chickasaw legislature to U.S. President Chester Arthur, he was granted a full pardon.
Paul was a proud Chickasaw, defending those who couldn't defend themselves. He died in 1891.
His family later founded the area that would become Pauls Valley, Oklahoma.