A New State

Oklahoma's unique history as Indian Territory spurs legislation designed to nullify tribal governments and pave the way for statehood in 1907, yet tribal rights are retained in the new constitution. For the next 60+ years, U.S. Indian policy vacillates between assimilation, terminating tribal rights and finding ways to "manage" tribes.

18 Items

Allotment Act

Each member of the Choctaw and Chickasaw tribes was allotted 320 acres in Indian Territory
In the Supplemental Agreement Act to the General Allotment Act of 1902, each member of the Choctaw and Chickasaw tribes was allotted 320 acres.

Sequoyah Constitutional Convention

An effort that was not supported by the Chickasaw Nation
In early 1905, James Norman, a Cherokee, began a separate statehood movement for Indian Territory.

Peter Maytubby Elected As Governor

However, he never officially took office
Although Peter Maytubby was elected in 1906, he never officially took office.

Five Civilized Tribes Act

An attempt to assimilate the Chickasaw people into the melting pot of American culture
Congress approved House Resolution 5976, which paved the way for Oklahoma's statehood the following year.

Enabling Act

Provided for a draft of a constitution for a single state made up of Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory
In 1906 Congress passed the Enabling Act, which provided for a draft of a constitution for a single state made up of Oklahoma and Indian Territory.

Oklahoma Statehood

No longer a territory, Oklahoma becomes the 46th state
On November 16, 1907, President Theodore Roosevelt proclaimed Oklahoma a state.

The Tragedy of Broken Trust

The effects of this era of federal control over the tribal governments reverberate today
“The Tragedy of Broken Trust” recounts a side of American history that isn’t taught in schools, a story of broken promises.

Legislation and the Choate Case

A landmark land and taxation legal ruling for the Chickasaw Nation
In November of 1910, Congress acted to sell a portion of the unallotted land, which included 750,000 acres of Chickasaw land.

Indian Citizenship Act

Also known as the Snyder Act, it granted Native Americans full U.S. citizenship
This Act, also known as the Snyder Act, was named in honor of Representative Homer P. Snyder of New York. It granted Indians full U.S. citizenship.

Indian Reorganization Act

Proposed to restore more sovereignty to the Native American people
The Wheeler-Howard Bill became known as the Indian Reorganization Bill or IRA. It was proposed by the new Commissioner of Indian Affairs.

Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act

Supported the business and governmental aspects of Oklahoma tribes
While Governor Johnston had generally supported Collier’s Indian Reorganization Act, that Act tended to favor the Southwestern Indians.

Governor Johnston's Death

The passing of the last chief executive of the Five Tribes
Governor Johnston, the last chief executive of the Five Tribes elected by his people, died on June 28, 1939.

Floyd Maytubby Appointed As Governor

A World War II and Great Depression governorship
Floyd Maytubby was appointed governor of the Chickasaw Nation in 1939. He served as governor from 1939-1963.

Termination Policy

A new decision to completely assimilate Native Americans into the general population
A 1943 survey of reservations throughout the U.S. showed the extreme poverty of much of the Indian population. The BIA and others were blamed.

Reviving Chickasaw Government and Culture

Social and cultural programs introduced to preserve the heritage of the Chickasaw people
In 1963, the Chickasaws began to pressure the federal programs to provide social and economic services.

E.B. Maytubby Appointed As Governor

He assumed governorship in May of 1963, following the death of his nephew, Governor Floyd Maytubby
E.B. Maytubby was appointed governor of the Chickasaw Nation in 1963. He served as governor from May 1963 to October 1963.

Overton James Appointed As Governor

The youngest to serve in that position at that time and appointed by President John F. Kennedy
Overton James became governor of the Chickasaw Nation in 1963. He served as governor from 1963-1987.

American Indian Movement

Founded to reverse ruinous federal policies and renew the spirit of American Indian people
The late 1960s was a period of unrest for many in the United States, including American Indians, many of whom felt they were not being treated fairly.